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Almond Oil or
Sweet Almond oil (Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis) in cosmetics

     Almond is widely used in the manufacture of superior quality skin care and cosmetic products, and underneath please find a brief overview of almond, and why it is used.

The ancient Romans used almond oil extensively in skincare preparations and it was also embraced as a beautifier in Europe. Its laurels were sung as early as the 16th century by the herbalist, John Gerald.

Sweet almond oil is obtained from the dried kernels of the almond tree and it is an excellent emollient - helping the skin to balance its loss and absorption of moisture, while softening and soothing.

The oil is made from the Prunus amygdalus tree - sweet almond - and not Prunus amara (bitter almond).

The nearly odorless oil of the almond is excellent to nourish skin and is a great moisturizer, has excellent soothing properties and helps to reduce inflammation, which makes it suitable for all skin types.

It is high in linolenic, oleic, palmitic and other fatty acids which are beneficial to the skin and this oil helps to relieve irritation, inflammation and itching.

Almond oil has a fine texture and is easily absorbed - therefore the skin does not feel tacky or greasy after use, but helps to leave the skin soft and satiny smooth.

For this reason it is widely used in skin care products that need to promote a nourishing and moisturizing effect on the skin, but without causing oiliness or greasiness.

Aloe leaf extract in cosmetics

Aloe vera is widely used in the manufacture of superior quality skin care and cosmetic products, and underneath please find a brief overview of aloe vera, and why it is used.

Aloe vera, skin care, aloe vera, alwyn

Healing dry damaged skin

Various types of extractions of the aloe plant are done and include gels, extracts and powders - but they all contain the rich emollient properties that promote healing and repair to dry damaged skin. It has astringent, soothing and nourishing properties and helps prevent the formation of scar tissue.

Aloe Vera was first mentioned in the Egyptian "Ebers" papyrus at around about 1552 BC and legend has it that the beautiful Egyptian queen, Cleopatra, attributed her beauty to the use of Aloe Vera.

The humble Aloe has made a further mark on history. When Alexander the Great conquered Egypt in 332 BC, he heard of the healing properties of the plant, found on the island of Socotra, off the coast of Somalia, which he then promptly conquered to secured a supply of Aloe for his troops.

It is also reported that the Aloe has been used medicinally in Ancient Greece, since the 4th century, and Dioscorides, a noted physician, described the use of Aloe Vera in "De Materia Medica" (AD70).

Documents from the 10th century show use of Aloe Vera in Anglo Saxon medicine, and the earliest reference of the use of the herb in Chinese medicine dates from the 11th century.

It is from the botanic family Aloeaceae, the genus being Aloe and the specie vera and is also known as Cape, Barbados, Curaiao, Socotrine or Zanzibar aloe. Aloe looks very much like a type of cactus plant, but is actually a member of the lily family, which includes the garlic and onion plant.

The plant is found in tropical and desert regions throughout the world, and the easily recognizable large, fleshy, spiny and succulent leaves are popular for their many medicinal properties.

The sap of the leaves has medicinal properties, containing over 130 different constituents and is bitter and shiny (the word Aloe is derived from an Arabic word which means "bitter and shiny").

The sap has an almost neutral PH value and contains amino acids, vitamins and minerals that make it ideal for soothing skin inflammations. REF 8

Most of the proof substantiating the healing power of Aloe was anecdotal, until 1943, when a doctor who was working with burn victims "discovered" that Aloe Vera gel was an astonishingly effective treatment for burn wounds.

He found that applying Aloe Vera to burns lessened the pain and seemed to reduce scarring. He reported his findings in various medical journals, and other researchers started to investigate the matter.

Today, we know a lot more about the chemical make-up of Aloe Vera and its various healing properties due to this research, as well as other studies conducted.

These studies provided scientific proof that Aloe Vera

  • Contains constituents that accelerate wound healing
  • Helps reduce inflammation, pain and itching
  • Is a wonderful moisturizing agent and penetrates all skin types, quickly and deeply
  • Is naturally hypoallergenic (does not cause allergic response in most people) and has about the same PH balance as the skin
  • Stimulates the body's immune system

Healing wounds, fighting infection and soothing the skin

Aloe Vera gel is squeezed from the leaf, and may be used as a natural bandage for burns  small cuts and abrasions, as it seals the wound, promotes healing and helps to prevent infection.

Aloe vera is said to encourage skin rejuvenation, healing of wounds and treatment of sunburn.

It is also used to help in relieving arthritis pain, improving blood circulation, reducing scarring, and has anti-inflammatory properties.

It is often used in cases of skin disease, burns, bruises and eczema.

Alpha hydroxy acids in cosmetics

Alpha Hydroxy acids and fruit acids are used in the manufacture of superior quality skin care and cosmetic products, and underneath please find a brief overview of fruit acids, and why they are used.

Fruit acids, skin care, fruit acids, vrugte suur, natuurlike sure

Alpha-hydroxy acids are weak organic acids that are derived from sugar cane (glycolic acid), fruits (malic, citric and tartaric acids) as well as sour milk (lactic acid).

Synthetic alpha hydroxy acids are relatively cheap, but their natural cousins are more expensive. We use natural fruit acids and sugar cane obtained from Bilberry (Vaccinium Myrtillus), sugar cane (Saccharum Officinarum), Sugar maple (Acer Saccharum) the fruit acids of oranges (Citrus Aurantium Dulcis) and lemon (Citrus Medica Limonum).

The actions of these AHA are to help the skin shed dead skin cells easier, and thereby preventing a build-up of dead skin on the surface which causes a dull congested complexion.

These acids stimulate the production of collagen and elastin in the skin, which results in improved skin texture, smoothness and a better complexion. They help to moisturize the skin, improve fine line appearance and restore that healthy glow.

New research also indicates that the correct use of AHA helps to combat wrinkle formation and to lessen the effects of photo-aging and uneven pigmentation.

AHA are not a new phenomena, and the legend of Cleopatra bathing in milk (sour) is proved true as this would have resulted in her having a satin smooth skin and being one of the first people to employ these compounds as a skin rejuvenation product.

When using AHA in skin care products, the formulating chemist must however take care to ensure that the concentration of the AHA are not too high, or the pH factor too low, as contravening these rules would create a product that irritates, burns and sensitizes the skin to the sun.

Some bad reports were filed with the USA FDA regarding AHA - but in all the cases the incorrect percentage and incorrect pH was used. The use of AHA was declared safe as long as the rules regarding inclusion rates and pH are adhered to.

If consumers are however sensitive to AHA they need to take care, we recommend a skin patch test and that the consumer avoids excessive sun exposure.

The way in which we have included and formulated our AHA compounds into the products will not cause any adverse side effects and are totally safe and stable.

Alpha lipoic acid in skin care and cosmetics

Alpha lipoic acid can be used in the manufacture of superior quality skin care and cosmetic products, and underneath please find a brief overview on alpha lipoic acid, and why it is used.

Alpha lipoic acid, skin care, alpha lipoic acid, alpha lipoise suur

Alpha lipoic acid has stood the test of time

Some cosmetic companies would like to create the idea that alpha lipoic acid is a new invention, but in reality it has been around for some time, yet it is an expensive ingredient to use.

Alpha lipoic acid is also known as thioctic acid, 6,8-thioctic acid, 1,2-dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid and 1,2-dithiolane-3-valeric acid.

It is used in two of our products - our Rejuvenating Treatment Cream for Night and Day as well as our Rejuvenating Face Mask.

It is one of the most effective topical ingredients that can be used to fight the formation of wrinkles and to promote a younger looking skin.

Antioxidant in aqueous and lipid environments

Alpha lipoic acid is primarily an antioxidant - but a "universal antioxidant" - being active in both aqueous (water) and lipid (fat) environments. This is an important point, since the skin is made up of both types of materials and using an antioxidant like vitamin E, which works in lipid environments, will not do anything for the aqueous innards of the cell.

Antioxidants are substances that work by attacking "free radicals," which are waste products created during body metabolism - such as converting food to energy and even intense exercising, but there are also many other sources of free radicals - ultraviolet rays, radiation, pollution, chemicals, cigarette smoke, car exhaust, foods that are fried and barbequed, and pesticides.

Absorption of alpha lipoic acid through the skin

For skin care it is important to note that clinical tests have proven that alpha lipoic acid can be successfully absorbed by the skin, and that it is an effective agent to prevent damage caused by free radicals and that it is a potent anti-oxidant.

Alpha lipoic acid is fat soluble and therefore rapidly penetrates the skin circulating to all parts of the cell, including the mitochondria and the nucleus of the cell.

Smoothing of skin

Exposure to the sun is one of the most ageing factors to facial skin to take into account (photoageing) and regarding this, alpha lipoic acid has proved it worth, but further clinical tests show that applying a cream containing alpha lipoic acid will increase skin smoothness by 54%.

Action of alpha lipoic acid

It plays two very important roles in the cell - the first is that it is a fundamental co-enzyme in two vital reactions that lead to the production of energy at cellular level. For this reason it is used with great success in skincare and cosmetic products.

Secondly, it is a powerful antioxidant which is active against a broad spectrum of free radicals in both aqueous as well as lipid surroundings, and due to its size it can access the cells of nearly the entire body.

Although it may not sound important, it is vitally to note that alpha lipoic acid is active in both a water and lipid environment, since the human cell consists of various parts, and these parts are either water or lipid based - and this particular ingredient can work in both to protect against free radical damage.

Free radical damage to the cell, and the skin, leads to premature ageing and skin wrinkling.

Applied topically to the skin, it has amazing antioxidant properties and some research has been done in vitro on human dermal fibroblasts in cell-culture systems.

The results were interesting, but it is undeniably a very powerful antioxidant that also helps to increase the cell's metabolism.


The transcription factor - AP-1 - is also activated in a healing manner by alpha lipoic acid. When AP-1 is activated by sunlight, it starts to produce collagen digesting enzymes called metalloproteinases, but when so activated by alpha lipoic acid, it actually destroys collagen which has been damaged.

Alpha lipoic acid is converted to dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) which acts in harmony and boost the effectiveness of other antioxidants. It furthermore is capable of regenerating other antioxidants - such as vitamin C, E, glutathione and coenzyme Q10 from their inactive forms. 

Vitamin C

The above-mentioned action is particularly important to an antioxidant such as vitamin C, as this vitamin is required for the synthesis of collagen - the support of your skin.

Vitamin E

Tests show that alpha lipoic acid has a protective role to play when there is a shortage of vitamin E and even if vitamin E is deficient, none of the degenerative effects were observed.

The application of alpha lipoic acid has a further benefit. Although it can in no way be described as a sun-blocking factor, a clinical study showed that it acts as a protective agent against skin damage (oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation) due to ultraviolet radiation. 

Alpha lipoic acid working at cellular level

Alpha lipoic acid assist in the health of the mitochondria of the cell, keeping it working optimally. Making it available to ageing skin cells, energy production is increased, allowing for more efficient cellular repair and removal of cellular waste.

As it works on the energy production of the cells, the skin quickly attains a healthy radiance after a couple of days.

It furthermore helps to fight inflammation as well as edema (water retention) caused by such inflammation. Alpha lipoic acid helps to combat inflammation since it prevents the activation of NFk-B (kappa beta), which in turn prevents pro-inflammatory chemicals - called cytokines - from being formed.

Inflammation leads to ageing, and for this reason any compound that will control or lessen inflammation, will have a positive anti-aging effect.

Fighting wrinkles, lines and ageing of the skin

Alpha lipoic acid also helps with the prevention of glycation - where sugar and the protein of the collagen is cross-linked, leading to stiffness, wrinkles, lines and ageing of the skin.

When skin ages, glycated collagen results - causing the visible evidence of aging, but alpha lipoic acid, being part of the enzyme complex that scavenge hydroxy radicals, siglet oxygen and nitric oxide, aids in the disposal of the glycated collagen.

Alpha lipoic acid is a costly ingredient to use in a skin care product, but more importantly, it is a difficult molecule to work with. To include it in a skin care formulation with it still being active and effective, is a challenge to most scientists. Furthermore, it must be included at the right inclusion factor to be effective.

Our research scientist successfully developed a method to include alpha lipoic acid in some of our products, and for this reason, these products offer you the best and latest in the fight against aging.

Apricot kernel oil and powder (Prunus Armeniaca) in cosmetics

Apricot kernel oil as well as the powder is widely used in the manufacture of superior quality skin care and cosmetic products, and underneath please find a brief overview of apricot oil and powder, and why it is used.

Apricot, skin care, apricot, appelkoos

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Apricot kernel oil

Apricot kernel oil is a fine textured oil, that is easily absorbed by the skin without leaving it feeling oily and is high in poly-unsaturated fatty acids.

It is particularly helpful for dehydrated, delicate, distressed, mature and sensitive skin, and it helps to soothe inflammation.

This finely textured oil spreads easily and is particularly rich in both oleic acid and linoleic acid and is helpful in fighting fine lines.

The moisturizing, nourishing and revitalizing properties of apricot kernel oil some of the reasons why this ingredient is included in cosmetics and high quality skin care products.

The main fatty acids contained in apricot kernel oil are palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic and eicosenoic.

Apricot kernel powder

This superb natural exfoliating medium is made by finely grinding apricot seeds, sterilizing the result and then using it as a natural medium to exfoliate the skin.

The ground apricot kernels act as a mild abrasive, gently exfoliating the skin without any scraping, micro-cuts or damage. It is found that apricot kernels have the ability to break down into round particles that do not harm or damage the skin.

The powder is compatible with anionic and cationic surfactants, is non ionic and helps to promote a clear skin, removes impurities and has a pleasant odor.

Avocado oil (Persea Gratissima) in cosmetics

Avocado oil is widely used in the manufacture of superior quality skin care and cosmetic products, and underneath please find a brief overview on avocado, and why it is used.

avocado oil

Although it is classed as a vegetable oil, the avocado is really a fruit since it has a stone - but none-the-less it yields a rich and extremely deep penetrating oil, rich in vitamins A, D and E, lecithin as well as potassium - known as the youth mineral.

It furthermore contains proteins, lecithin, beta-carotene and more than twenty percent essential unsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acids that it contains are Palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic.

Benefits of avocado oil to the skin

It is also high in sterolins which are reputed to reduce age spots, help heal sun damage and scars. It is the sterolins (also called plant steroids) in the oil that helps to soften the skin and imparts a superior moisturizing effect.

For this reason it is an ideal ingredient to include when formulating for people with dehydrated, sun or climate damaged skin, as it is an extremely good moisturizing and nourishing compound, assisting in the regeneration and rejuvenation of the skin.

In a study done at the Department of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology in 1991, it was found that avocado oil significantly increases the amount of collagen in the skin - which normally is under attack as we grow older.

Avocado oil is easily absorbed into deep tissue, and with its wonderfully emollient properties, makes it ideal for mature skins. It also helps to relieve the dryness and itching of psoriasis and eczema.

It is often used for clients with dry or mature skins, or people suffering from eczema or psoriasis, and is very useful when treating sun or climate damaged skin that is dehydrated and undernourished, as it is said to help with regenerating the skin and softening the tissue.

Beeswax (Cera Alba) in cosmetics

Beeswax is widely used in the manufacture of superior quality skin care and cosmetic products, and underneath please find a brief overview of beeswax, and why it is used.

Beeswax, skin care, beeswax, byewas

Beeswax (also known as Cera alba and Cera flava) is a natural wax produced by honey bees, and although an expensive ingredient, widely used in cosmetics as an emulsifier, emollient, moisturizer and film former.

Some people have a mental picture of beeswax as a thick, rubbery material, but the way that it is used in cosmetic manufacture turns it into a wonderfully soft and spreadable material with excellent skin softening and moisturizing effects, without clogging pores or leaving a greasy tacky feeling.

The honey bee, Apis Mellifera, secretes beeswax to build the walls of the honeycomb and when secreted, the wax is a transparent colorless liquid, which turns into a semi-solid substance on contact with the atmosphere.

Effect of beeswax when used in skin care products

It is used as a thickening agent, emulsifier, and humectant and has emollient, soothing and softening properties and helps the skin retain moisture.

Some people are of the opinion that it may clog pores, but if correctly applied in skin care formulations it can have the most wonderful moisturizing and softening effect on the skin. It furthermore helps the skin to retain moisture and has an antiseptic and healing effect on the skin.

Beeswax is purified from its raw state by freeing it of solid impurities by melting and centrifugation. It typically contains 10-15 percent paraffin carbohydrates, 35-37 percent esters of C16 to C36 fatty acids and about 15 percent cerotic acid, melissic acid and their homologues.

Even after technological processing it still remains a biologically active product retaining some anti-bacterial properties and also contains some vitamin A which is necessary for normal cell development .

Primitive people knew and used it as an antiseptic and for wound healing. Hippocrates even recommended that a layer of beeswax be placed on the neck for quinsy.

Benzoin essential oil (Styrax Benzoin) in cosmetics

Benzoin is widely used in the manufacture of superior quality skin care and cosmetic products, and underneath please find a brief overview of benzoin, and why it is used.

Benzoin, skin care, benzoin, bensoine

Benzoin oil is extracted from the resin of the Styrax Benzoin tree and is also known as gum benzoin, luban jawi (meaning frankincense of Java), Benjamin or Styrax benzoin and its main constituents are benzoic acid, benzyl benzoate, benzyl alcohol, vanillin and coniferyl benzoate.

It has a variety of therapeutic properties which include it being antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, deodorant, diuretic and vulnerary.

Benzoin helps with circulation and dry chapped skin

It is normally used for wounds, acne, eczema, psoriasis, scar tissue, circulation, chilblains, rashes and mouth ulcers.

Benzoin oil has a warming effect, which helps to boost circulation and also helps to soothe dry, chapped skin, eczema, as well as assist with minor wounds and scar tissue

Bergamot fruit essential oil (Citrus Aurantium Bergamia) in cosmetics

Bergamot is widely used in the manufacture of superior quality skin care and cosmetic products, and underneath please find a brief overview of bergamot, and why it is used.

Bergamot, skin care, bergamot, bergamot sitroen

Bergamot essential oil is extracted from the tree, Citrus bergamia (a.k.a. Citrus aurantium subspecies bergamia) and has been used in Italian folk medicine for a long time.

Antiseptic and antibiotic

The therapeutic effects attributed to Bergamot are antiseptic and a natural antibiotic. It is therefore helpful in fighting infections and is invaluable for skin conditions such as acne, psoriasis and eczema.

Bergamot contains bergaptene which is a photo sensitizing ingredient, but we have included it in such a way that this photo or sun sensitizing problem would not be activated, and since it is used in a "wash off" product, and not in a cream or gel that stays on your skin, this further negates this effect.

Bilberry fruit extract (Vaccinium Myrtillus) in cosmetics

Bilberry is widely used in the manufacture of superior quality skin care and cosmetic products, and underneath please find a brief overview of bilberry, and why it is used.

Bilberry, skin care, bilberry, bessie

Bilberry is used as an medicinal herb and has a long history of use, mainly for stomach and eye problems, but in skincare it is the fruit acid contained in the berry that is of interest.

Bisabolol in cosmetics in cosmetics

Bisabolol is widely used in the manufacture of superior quality skin care and cosmetic products, and underneath please find a brief overview of bisabolol, and why it is used.

Bisabolol, skin care, bisabolol, bisabolool

Bisabolol is an active molecule and can be extracted naturally or made synthetically.

We use the naturally derived bisabolol which is obtained from the medicinal plant - Chamomile where the (-) a Bisabolol isomer is the active principle in the plant.

Bisabolol itself is a clear, colorless to slightly yellowish liquid with a faint, floral, sweetish odor, yet Chamomile oil itself has a deep blue color.

It has been used for hundreds of years in medicinal applications and this naturally occurring ingredient is used to help accelerate the healing process of the skin, and is used confidently on sensitive skins.

Its anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory properties make it a natural choice to use in skincare products and it also contains anti-bacterial as well as anti-mycotic properties

Black pepper seed essential oil (Piper Nigrum) in cosmetics

Black pepper is widely used in the manufacture of superior quality skin care and cosmetic products, and underneath please find a brief overview of black pepper, and why it is used.

Black pepper, skin care, black pepper, swart peper

Black pepper oil is extracted from the plant Piper nigrum of the Piperaceae family and has its feet planted in history since Roman times.

It helps by being an antiseptic, toning, warming and increasing blood flow. It also gently stimulates urine production and thereby removes excess water build-up.

It is furthermore most helpful in dispersing bruising.

Borage seed oil (Borago Officinalis) in cosmetics

Borage is widely used in the manufacture of superior quality skin care and cosmetic products, and underneath please find a brief overview of borage, and why it is used.

Borage, skin care, borage, komkommerkruid bernagie

Borage oil is extracted from Borago Officinalis and is an expensive ingredient to use, yet its effectiveness more than compensates for its price.

It is not only very soothing and softening to the skin, but also helps to reduce the redness so often experienced with very sensitive skins. It furthermore helps with skin clearing and lightening, promoting healthy skin growth and act as an anti-inflammatory and is also said to be a hormonal balancer.

Although essential fatty acids are important in your diet, they can play an important role when applied topically to the skin, especially if it is borage oil, which is a cooling, saline, diuretic herb that soothes damaged and irritated tissues.

It is of great use on problem skins, especially with acne, pimples and blemishes.

Borage is extremely high in mucilage and also contains pyrrolizdine alkaloids. The main constituents of borage are vitamin C, saponins, tannins and minerals.

Topical application of borage oil has been shown to be very effective in preventing and treating inflammatory conditions and skin disorders, such as eczema and dermatitis in both animals and humans.

The essential fatty acids contained in the oil help treat rosacea by reducing inflammation, controlling the cells' metabolism and by producing prostaglandins, which stimulate the contraction of blood vessels.

The tannins contained in the oil have a slight tightening effect on the skin.

Borage oil restores moisture and smoothness to dry, irritated and damaged skin, and also helps provide relief to people who suffer from chronic skin disorders such as eczema and atopic dermatitis.

Borage oil is a regenerating oil and especially beneficial when skin disorders are present.

The borage plant is grown and harvested for the valuable oil found in its seeds (borage oil), as the leaves contain small amounts of pyrrolizdine alkaloids which may cause liver damage - but this constituent is NOT present in the oil.

The value of this oil is that it is the richest known source (24%) of an essential fatty acid called gamma-linolenic acid (GLA).

Butcher's broom extract (Ruscus Aculeatus) in cosmetics

Butcher's broom is used in the manufacture of superior quality skin care and cosmetic products, and underneath please find a brief overview of butcher's broom, and why it is used.

Butcher's broom, skin care, butcher's broom, muisdoring

The name Butcher's Broom (Ruscus aculeatus) is derived from the fact that the branches were bound in bundles and sold to butchers to sweep their cutting blocks. The young shoots of the plant can and were eaten much like asparagus to which it is botanically closely aligned.

It is also known as Box Holly and 'Jew's Myrtle' which refers to the use of this herb during the Feast of Tabernacles. Another name by which it is known is Pettigree.

Butchers broom extract acts mainly on the microcirculation, decreasing capillary permeability due to its content of a flavonoid called Rutin.

The therapeutic properties of this plant are used to increase circulation, reduce edema, reduce swelling and to act as an anti-inflammatory. The extract has been used with good results in the treatment of varicose veins.

This herb is mostly used for disorders of the venous system (veins and arteries) of the body, especially for fragility of the veins and for improving circulation. This has been proven in clinical investigations.

In 1950 the French researchers, H Lapin and C Sanni้, isolated ruscogenin - a sapogenin, in the plant, which is similar to the steroid, saponin diogenin that is found in the Mexican yam root (Dioscorea species), and this active ingredient is today found in preparations for topical applications in hemorrhoid treatments. Various clinical studies have been done to test the effectiveness of the herb in assisting circulation and the venous system,  as well as the effect it has on the tone of the skin and the effect that it exerts as a topical application.

The constituents of the herb contain a mixture of 4 - 6% steroidal saponin compounds, approximately 0.12% ruscogenin, neoruscogenin, ruscin and ruscoside fatty acids, which includes tetracosanoic acid, flavonoids, sterols (sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol) and benzofuranes (euparone and ruscodibenzofurane)

Caffeine in cosmetics

Caffeine is used in the manufacture of specialized skin care and cosmetic products, and underneath please find a brief overview of caffeine, and why it is used.

caffeine, skin care, velsorg, kaffein, losing weight

The ingredient caffeine is derived from the Coffea arabica plant and is used as a skin-conditioning agent - this meaning that it creates a specific state on the skin.

The only product in our range to use caffeine is Cellumend, and it is included to help with absorption of the product, and it has proven in clinical trials to work synergistically with escin and our specific active ingredient.

Difference between drinking and applying caffeine

The topical application of caffeine in cosmetic and skincare products is different to that of taking it systemically as when drinking coffee - and people that do not drink coffee or other caffeine containing products, because it makes them jittery or ill, would not necessary suffer the same effect when using a product, like Cellumend, which contains caffeine.

Caffeine presents a lipolytic effect:

  • It blocks enzymes responsible for the destruction of AMPs, which is involved in triglycerides breakage.
  • It also possesses vasodilator properties, increasing blood flow.
  • Therefore, it contributes in both the lipolytic and venotonic effect.

Calendula (Pot Marigold) essential oil (Calendula Officinalis) in cosmetics

Calendula is used in the manufacture of superior quality skin care and cosmetic products, and underneath please find a brief overview of calendula, and why it is used.

Calendula, skin care, calendula, gousblom

Calendula oil is derived by infusing the petals into oil, which then imparts the therapeutic properties of the flowers into the oil. The ancient Greek and Roman civilizations already used Calendula as a medicinal herb.

Anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral

It has excellent anti-inflammatory as well as antiseptic (antibacterial and antiviral) properties which makes it a favorite when treating any wound or skin problem.

Healing of the skin

Apart from the anti-inflammatory effect that it has, it is also most effective in healing sores and wounds REF 27 & 28 and in fighting fungal infections - such as Athletes foot.

Calendula's great anti-inflammatory properties are most useful in cases where tissue degeneration is an issue - such as stubborn wounds, sores, acne, ulcers, bed sores, varicose veins, bruises, rashes, eczema etc.

It has been shown that Calendula stimulates the regeneration of wound tissue, since it intensifies the metabolism of glycoproteins, nucleoproteins and collagen during the healing process. REF 26

Apart from these properties, it has a soothing action and helps with circulation and is also used to treat thread and spider veins (broken capillaries) as well as varicose veins.

It furthermore is good to use with sore, inflamed skin conditions, for burns, eczema and nappy rash, as well as sore, cracked nipples.

The main constituents are volatile oil, saponins, flavonoids, clendulin, sterols, fatty acids, calendic acid, oleanic acid, triterpenoids, tocopherols and flavonol glycosides.

Carnitine in cosmetics

Carnitine is used in the manufacture of superior quality skin care and cosmetic products, and underneath please find a brief overview of carnitine, and why it is used.

Carnitine, skin care, carnitine, karnitien

The ingredient carnitine is used to help fuel mitochondrial respiratory chains with free fatty acids. Adipocytes are thereby freed of their excess content of triglycerides.

Carnitine is therefore used to transport fatty acids and promote lipogenises inhibition. This ingredient is well-known for enhancing triglycerides mobility and accelerating their breakdown.

With the above in mind, it is easy to see why carnitine has been included in Cellumend, the effective anti cellulite treatment.

Carrot seed oil (Daucus Carota Sativa) in cosmetics

Carrot seed oil is used in the manufacture of superior quality skin care and cosmetic products, and underneath please find a brief overview of carrot seed oil, and why it is used.

Carrot seed, skin care, carrot seed, wortel saad

It is also known as Wild Carrot and Queen Anne's Lace.

Benefits of carrot seed oil on the skin

Carrot seed oil is an excellent source of Beta carotene and Vitamin A and is said to restore the elasticity of the skin and keep it soft and smooth.

Due to the stimulating effect that the oil has on the red blood cells it improves tone and elasticity and since it also helps to remove toxins from the skin, it is indicated for use in people with skin problems such as acne and wounds.

Due to the fact that it also stimulates new cell growth in the skin, it is an excellent ingredient to use in creams formulated for more maturing skin, as well as wrinkled and sun damaged skin.

In general it improves the complexion, helps to remove edema and create a firmer, fresher appearance and has anti-aging properties.

Castor seed extract (Ricinus Communis) in cosmetics

Castor seed is used in the manufacture of superior quality skin care and cosmetic products, and underneath please find a brief overview of castor seed, and why it is used.

Castor seed extract, skin care, castor seed, kasterolie

Castor seed extract must not be confused with castor oil, which contains toxic constituents.

The extract has great emollient properties, helps to reduce swelling, reduce irritation and act as detoxifier.

It is used as a component of our phytobeads.

Chamomile (German / Hungarian) flower essential oil (Chamomilla Recutita) in cosmetics

Chamomile is used in the manufacture of superior quality skin care and cosmetic products, and underneath please find a brief overview of chamomile, and why it is used.

Chamomile, skin care, chamomile, kamille

Over the past 30 years, extensive scientific investigations have confirmed the traditional uses of German Chamomile (Matricaria recutita).

It has been referred to in medical writings since ancient Egypt and the ancient Greeks and Romans also used it as a medicine.

The name is derived from the Greek chamos (ground) and melos (apple).

The essential oil which we refer to as German Chamomile essential oil is distilled from Matricaria Recutita (M. chamomilla) and is also known as blue camomile, scented mayweed, Hungarian camomile and single camomile.

It is one of the most widely used botanicals and has softening and soothing as well as healing, toning, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Apart from these, it also contains skin stimulating properties.

It contains azulene which helps to reduce puffiness and cleanse pores of impurities. REF 30 & 31

The British Herbal Compendium lists chamomile for use with inflammations and irritations of skin, as well as for eczema REF 29

The main therapeutic benefits of German Chamomile are that it reduces the symptoms of allergies, alleviates and reduces inflammation, has anti-bacterial properties, calms the skin, assists healing and closing wounds, reduces dilated blood vessels and helps with the health of veins and capillaries.

It contains more than 100 constituents and includes apigens, bisabolene, and alpha-bisabolol, borneol, farnesol, furfural, matricarin, chamazulene, as well as chlorogenic acid, but the main chemical components important to skincare are: Farnesene, Cuminic and Azulene.

It also contains phenolic derivatives, which have an antiseptic and healing quality, which is most helpful in relieving skin congestion and softening the skin.

Chamomile oil has also great wound healing properties and is extensively used with skin problems such as rashes, acne, eczema, psoriasis, hypersensitive skin and allergic conditions.

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